Glossary of Terms

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Term Definition

Surgical removal.

Active Surveillance

A treatment plan that involves carefully monitoring a patient's condition but not giving further treatment. During this time, a patient will be tested regularly to check if any changes in the cancer require more treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy.


A type of cancer that develops in the prostate gland cells.

Adrenal glands

Two small, triangle-shaped organs that sit on top of the kidneys and produce hormones called corticosteroids. These hormones help manage your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, and how you respond to stress.

Advanced Prostate Cancer

Cancer that has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body; also called metastatic prostate cancer.


A drug that activates certain receptors in the brain.

Androgen (or male sex hormone)

A substance capable of developing and maintaining masculine characteristics in reproductive tissues (notably the genital tract, secondary sexual characteristics, and fertility) and contributing to the anabolic status of somatic tissues.

Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT)

Treatment designed to either stop testosterone from being produced or to directly block it from acting on prostate cancer cells.

Androgen receptor

A type of protein found in the cells of male reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and cancer cells. Hormones called androgens bind to these receptors in prostate cancer cells and cause the cancer cells to grow.


A substance that stops the action or effect of another substance.

Atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP)

A condition in which the pathologist sees cellular features under the microscope that are worrisome, but has insufficient data to make a diagnosis and thus raises the suspicion of cancer.


Fluciclovine indicated for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in men with suspected prostate cancer recurrence based on high prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Non-malignant, age-associated prostate gland enlargement.

Biochemical recurrence

A rise in the blood level of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) in prostate cancer patients after treatment with surgery or radiation. Biochemical recurrence may occur in patients who do not have symptoms. It may mean that the cancer has come back. Also called biochemical relapse and PSA failure.


Special molecules found in blood or tissue that can help to find out if you have cancer or not.